Riffle, Runs, Pools,Flats, Undercut Banks, Woody Debris, Overhanging Vegetation, Plinge Pools, Rocket Water

http://depts.washington.edu/ehuf473/ehuf473/rifflerunpool.htm
adding some pictures from other sites, 別サイトの図、写真を追加

Riffles(早瀬、浅瀬)
Riffles are the preeminant feature of coldwater streams. They are at once a food source, a shelter from predators, a hedge against oxygen depletion, and a conveyor belt that brings food to the trout. Riffles, with their broken water surface, not only hide the trout from predators, but also hides predators (such as humans) from the trout. Because of this, trout in riffles may be approached more easily, and are harder to spook. Many species of insects reproduce or grow to maturity in riffles. The constant fast current dislodges nymphs from the rocks, freeing them into the “biological drift”, a term that refers to the constant downstream movement of organisms in flowing water. Riffles also oxygenate the water. In hot weather, trout may congregate in riffles, where the oxygen content of the water is highest. Riffles may be any depth, but most are between one and three feet deep. Within a riffle, trout may lie in wait behind rocks, hug the bottom, or roam about. Small pockets of deeper water in a riffle are prime feeding locations for trout, and invariably hold good fish. Riffles also hold larger prey items, like darters, sculpins, and crayfish, so large trout may move into riffles periodically to feed, especially at night.p
ns, and crayfish, so large trout may move into riffles periodically to feed, especially at night.

 Rifflesは渓流の際立った特徴だ。こして、餌の源、捕食者からのシェルター、酸素を充足する障害物、鱒に餌を運ぶベルト・コンベアになる。波立つ水面のRiffleは捕食者から鱒を隠すだけでなく、鱒から捕食者や釣人を隠す。魚をビクつかせることはなく、riffleにいる鱒へ簡単に近づくことができる。riffleではたくさんの昆虫が繁殖し育っていく。一様な急流は石からニンフ(幼虫)を剥ぎ落とし、水流の中で有機物の一定な下流への動きを意味する言葉「生物的な浮遊」へと解放させる。riffleはまた酸素を生む。riffleでは酸素濃度が高いので、暖かい日に鱒は群れをなしている。riffleは色々な水深があるが、大半は1~3フィートの間だ。riffle区間では鱒は岩の後ろで待ち伏せしていて(lie in wait)、川底の近くにいるか、または動き回っている。riffleの深場の小さな窪地は鱒にとって一級の餌場だ。いつもイイ魚がいる。riffleはまたダーター(darter)、カジカやザリガニのような大きな獲物(prey)が居着き、大きな鱒が定期的にriffleに移動している。特に、夜に。

Runs(深瀬)
Runs are similar to riffles, but although their current may be somewhat swift, their surface is smooth enough to allow light to penetrate. Runs are characterized by moderate current and a smooth surface. Runs may be deeper than riffles, but this depends on the size of the stream. Runs that form bends may form undercut banks, as the current erodes the underside of the streambank. Trout use runs as both holding and feeding areas. Trout do not need to expend as much energy fighting current in a run as in a riffle, so when food is abundant, trout may move out of a riffle and into a run to save energy while feeding.

 Runsはrifflesに似ているが、その水流は何らかのサザ波があり、日光が浸透するに十分なくらいゆっくりした水面である。Runsは穏やかな流れとスムーズな水面が特徴だ。RunsはRifflesより深いが、それは渓流のサイズに依存する。曲線部を形成するRunsは、水流が岸辺の下側を浸食しながら、張り出しのある川岸(undercut banks)を作る。鱒は一時休止と採食のためにrunsを使う。鱒はruffleと同様、runでは水流に対抗するためにエネルギーをたくさん消費する必要が無いので、餌が豊富なら採食中のエネルギーを押さえるために、riffleから出てrunに移動するようになる。

Pools(プール、トロ場、淵)
Pools are one of the most obvious features of a stream. They are popular with beginners who become mystified by the trout they see lurking in pools. Pools often hold suckers as well as tout. The pool provides the two things that are generally lacking in coldwater streams: depth and still water. The deep water of a pool provides a trout with the ultimate in protection from predators. However, because current in the main pool, especially near the bottom, is almost nonexistant, food is hard to come by there. Where a riffle or run enters a pool,a featured called “the toungue of the pool” is created. This area is where all biological drift enters the pool, and is a prime location for trout to lie in wait. The entire upstream end, where the tongue is, is called the “throat”. The deepest section in the middle of the pool is called the “belly” and the narrows at the bottom where the water speeds up as it exits the pool is called the “tail”. The tail concentrates food, and any kind of structure located in the tail of the pool is a prime location which will hold fish.

 Poolsは渓流で最も明らかな特徴のある場所だ。poolに潜む鱒に魅惑された初心者には人気がある。Poolは鱒と同様にSuckerを居着かせる。poolは低水温の川で、深さと止水の2つを与える。深い水域は、鱒に捕食者から身を守るに良い場所になる。しかし、特に川底近くの主poolの流れはほとんどなく、餌がここまで来るのは難しい。riffleやrun部がpoolに入ってきて、poolのtoungue(舌)と呼ばれる場所が作られる。このエリアはすべての生物学的浮遊物がpoolに入る場所であり、鱒が潜んでいる一級の場所だ。上流(toungue)の終端は喉(throat)と呼ばれる。poolの中間の最も深い部分は腹(belly)と呼ばれ、それが終わると、流れが速くなる川底の細い部分は尾(tail)と言う。tailは餌を集め、poolのtailのどのような構造も魚のいる一級の場所だ。

Sucker
Flats(平瀬)
A flat might be called a shallow pool. Flats have a still, unbroken surface, but a shallow, uniform bottom. Flats may or may not be productive, depending on bottom type. Smooth, sandy flats are almost worthless as trout habitat, except at the edges or near woody debris. Gravel flats are better, but flats that are filled with aquatic vegetation are perhaps the best. Open channels that often form between the weeds are perfect holding spots for trout, but beware: trout on flats are incredibly wary and can see the area above the water perfectly. Fishing for trout in flats is a place where presentations must be artful, tippets must be long and fine, and trouters must make every effort to conceal themselves from their quarry.

 Flatは浅いpoolと呼ぶことができる。flatは静かで波のない水面だが、浅く一様な川底だ。flatに魚がいるかいないかは川床に依存する。スムーズな砂地の川底には流木の集積した箇所を除いてほとんど魚はいない。砂利のflatは鱒の住処として価値がないが、水辺の植物で覆われたflatはおそらくベストだ。雑草間にできる開けたchannelは鱒の完璧な待機場所だ。用心せよ。flatにいる鱒は非常に用心深く、水面の上をしっかり見ることが出来る。flatでの鱒釣りはフライのプレゼンテーションは芸術的に、ティペットは長く繊細で、そして釣人は足場から自分を制御するように努力しなければならない。

Undercut Banks(えぐられた土手)

Wherever strong current flows against an earthen bank, the area beneath the water may become eroded. This creates a submerged, cavelike overhang in which trout may hold without worrying about predators. Undercut banks are also created by man, these so-called “Lunker Structures” are placed in the stream to provide additional cover for trout in areas where undercuts do not occur naturally. In all cases, these stream features will hold fish. Presenting a fly to these fish, however, can be quite a challenge. Depending on the current, it may be possible to drift a nymph beneath an undercut, but more often than not this is an exercise in futility. Creeping up on the same bank and dapping your fly over the edge works occasionally, and during a hatch, a dry fly may be drifted against the bank to elicit strikes from the trout concealed beneath the undercut.

 土手に強い水流が流れ込んでいるところは、どこでも水中のエリアは浸食される。これは水中に沈んだ、洞穴のような出っ張りを作る。そこでは鱒は捕食者を心配する必要が無い。また、ここは人間によっても作られものはLunker Structureと呼ばれる。自然に出来ないundercutのある場所では鱒に更なるカバーを与えために作られる。いずれの場合も、鱒が住み着く。それらの魚にフライをプレゼンテーションすることは本当に冒険である。川の流れによって、undercutの下にニンフをドリフト可能だが、大抵(more ofen than not)、無駄なことになる。同じ土手を這って、その縁にフライを落とすと、ときどき上手くいく。羽化の期間はドライフライ土手に対して流すと、undercut下の隠れている鱒からアタリを引き出せる。

Woody Debris(木の浮遊物)
Logs, branches, even whole trees sometimes end up in trout streams. These features block the current and provide shelter for fish. Swinging a streamer from upstream is one presentation that works in these instances. Woody debris, when combined with another feature, such as deep water or the tongue of a pool, is a trout magnet.

 丸太、枝、木でさえ、最後には鱒のいる渓流に流れて来る。そのためこれらは川の流れをせき止め、魚の避難所になる。上流からストリーマーを流すことは、うまいプレゼンテーションの1つだ。川の深場や細いプールのような部分、流木が組合わさった浮遊物は鱒の興味になる。

Overhanging Vegetation(覆い被さった草木、ボサ下)

Whether it is tall grass or tree branches, anything hanging out over a stream is worthy of notice. These structures protect trout from their most effective predator, the fisherman. Plus, terrestrial insects, such as ants, aphids, and beetles, may drop into the stream from such. A carefully planned cast that is allowed to drift beneath overhanging vegetation is always worth a shot. Or, you can creep up on the bank and gently lower a tiny ant imitation onto the surface of the water and feed out line to let it drift beneath a tree. This crafty and highly enjoyable tactic has always been enjoyable.

 背の高い草か、木の枝かに係わらず、川に覆い被さったものがある箇所は注意すべき場所だ。このような地形は、恐ろしい捕食者や釣人から鱒を守る。更に、アリ、アブラムシ、カブトムシなどの陸生昆虫がそこから川に落ちることがある。覆い被さった草木の下を流すための注意深く考えられたキャストはショット(オモリ)が効果的である。また土手を這って、水面に蟻のイミテーションをやさしく落とし、木の下を漂わせるように餌を流す。この狡くて楽しい戦術はいつも面白い。

Plunge Pools(滝壺)

Small waterfalls will occasionally be encountered on trout streams. Where the falling water hits soft bottom, a hole is scoured out that may be considerably deeper than the surrounding water. Trout love these tiny, sheltered pockets and a weighted nymph, cast above the waterfall and allowed to travel down to the bottom of the plunge pool, will take fish.

 ときどき、小さな滝に鱒のいる渓流で出会う。滝が柔らかい川底にぶつかると、周辺よりもかなり深く押し流される。鱒はこの小さく守られた窪みが好きで、滝上にキャストして滝壺の底に沈めるオモリ付きニンフが有効だ。

Rapids and Pocket water(激流と岩陰)

Rapids are areas where the water is so swift that trout do not hold in them. Within a rapid, however, fish will maintain station in scour holes, behind rocks, and in small “pocket water” of various types. Heavily weighted nymph rigs may be employed to explore these areas.

 Rapidは鱒がそこに留まることができないくらい速い流れだ。しかし、rapid内では魚は、岩の後ろなどの小さな掘れた窪地に居場所を維持している。重いオモリの仕掛けのニンフがこのエリアでは効果的だ。

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